Introduction: Chinese migrants living in Australia experience difficulties managing their cancer pain. Understanding cultural influences on cancer pain management experiences and needs from both patient and nurse perspectives may provide an opportunity of developing strategies to promote cultural congruent pain care, to help Chinese migrants achieve the holistic wellbeing they desire and deserve.
Objectives/Aims: To explore cultural and social structure factors influencing care experiences and needs of Chinese migrant with cancer pain from both patient and nurse perspectives.
Description/Methodology: A convergent mixed-method designed research project informed by Leininger’s ‘Theory of Culture Care Diversity and Universality’ and the ‘Australian Guidelines for Cancer Pain Management in Adults. The project were undertaken between May 2017- 2018, involving: 1) a cross-sectional survey to Australian cancer-palliative care nurses (n=133) from 42 healthcare settings across five states; and 2) five focus groups to Chinese migrant living with cancer pain (n=24) residing in Sydney. Data integration and mete-interferences based on qualitative findings and quantitative results were carried out to draw the conclusion and recommendations.
Results/Outcomes: The following five cultural and social structure factors identified by both patients and nurses, ‘Cultural Values, Beliefs, and Lifeways’, ‘Religious/Spiritual/Philosophical Factors’, ‘Kinship and Social Factors’, ‘Language and Communication Factors’ and ‘Professional and Generic (folk lay) Care Beliefs and Practices’, influence Chinese migrants’ ‘care expressions, patterns and practices’ and nurses’ confidences to manage this population’s cancer pain. While many of the nurse’s perceptions of Chinese migrants’ cancer pain experiences and needs were congruent with those described by these patients, there were some distinct differences acting as pain management barriers. The patients also reported additional factors impeded them to achieve optimal care outcomes, including: ‘General and Specific Care Factors’, Educational and Technological Factors’, ‘Economic Factors’, and ‘Political and Legal Factors’.
Conclusion: A series of strategies addressing identified gaps are proposed, to inform clinical practice and to increase nurses’ and other health professionals’ cultural competences in providing culturally congruent pain care to this population.
Acknowledgement: This research is supported by an Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship and a Research Grant of Cancer Nurses Society of Australia (for the focus groups).